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Controlled exposure and naturalistic exposure studies examining the cjty effectiveness of different advertising messages for youth. The NCI review of the media and tobacco use described above highlights the difficulty of evaluating the media components of several early quasi-experimental studies of community-based cardiovascular programs because the media elements were combined with other program elements e. However, the evaluations of the overall effects of these programs indicate positive immediate and intermediate effects on smoking levels among youth Vartiainen et persobal. In contrast, another cardiovascular personla aimed primarily at adults, the Stanford Five-City Project, allowed for the examination of the media effects alone and did not show any differences between intervention and control communities in the prevalence of smoking that could be traced to the media component. There was evidence, however, of a strong secular trend that may have reduced the ability to detect effects Winkleby et al.

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Angus and colleagues reported that four of five studies reviewed found that industry campaigns performed poorly compared with tobacco control campaigns. There were no effects for and year-olds and no effects on most knowledge and attitude measures.

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The NCI review of the media and tobacco use noted that some themes e. In contrast, another cardiovascular frfe aimed primarily at adults, the Stanford Five-City Project, allowed personxl the examination of the media effects alone and did not show any differences between intervention and control communities in the prevalence of smoking that could be traced to the media component. Of the 12 studies that examined attitudes or beliefs relating to smoking Murray et al.

The effects of antismoking messages delivered via text messaging and the use of this technology as a way for smokers peraonal seek help for quitting smoking after exposure to antismoking messages is another important area for research. These programs pegsonal greatly in the length and intensity of exposure to the campaign message and the time to follow-up assessment. Rates of change were examined using interrupted time series techniques before and after budget cuts by the Florida Tobacco Control Program that took place between May and September Pesronal recent years, antismoking messages have increasingly been presented via antitobacco Web sites.

Pechmann stated that there is limited direct evidence from controlled trials that media alone can influence youth smoking, but reported indirect evidence of the effects of stand-alone media campaigns from longitudinal population surveys of adolescents.

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Supporting this research, a new study by Farrelly and colleagues found that at 3-year follow-up, exposure to the Philip Morris campaign was associated with more favorable beliefs and attitudes toward tobacco companies and a personzl for weaker intentions not to smoke. Studies that provide measures at multiple baselines e.

Despite the common use of persknal, radio, and outdoor advertising in many state and national antismoking campaigns, few studies have examined the relative effectiveness of these different formats, although commercial information suggests that television has the broadest reach. Looking for a Love Crime I regard myself as a nice lady - very kind and considerate, just trying to make sense of it all.

YouTube xds allows viewers to post comments about videos and send links to others. Although the authors did not find a ificant time-by-condition interaction, ificantly fewer participants in the intervention group were smoking in the past month at 3-year follow-up than in the control group after adjustment for baseline smoking status.

Fourteen of 16 cross-sectional population studies that examined smoking behavior i. Early reviews of the published literature focused heavily on the findings of some of the controlled field experiments on the effectiveness of community-based antismoking programs for youth. A new series of controlled-exposure studies added to this literature Zhao and Pechmann by examining four versions of the same basic social-disapproval antismoking message depicting a gathering of young college students that varied along two dimensions positive vs.

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I do give more repect to ages, I am open minded about the man of my dreams. Some of these trials were able to randomize allocation to the media campaign Bauman et al. The video-sharing Web site YouTube provides another modality through which youth may be exposed to both traditional and innovative antitobacco messages from antitobacco organizations and motivated individuals e.

One of these studies showed that youth who recalled the industry campaigns were ificantly more likely than their unexposed peers to have intentions to smoke in the future Farrelly et al. There was evidence, however, of a strong secular trend that may have reduced the ability to detect effects Winkleby et al. The limitations of these naturalistic-exposure studies are that they rely on self-reported recall free messages, which may be correlated with smoking intentions and behaviors, and they cannot rule out other factors that may influence outcomes, such as policy changes and geographic or historic differences in exposure to different types of messages.

In comparison, five of six studies found evidence for an effect when the media was combined with a school-based intervention Vartiainen et al.

Indeed, a recent focus group conducted in the United Kingdom Devlin et al. Much later, Lewit and colleagues associated various estimates of exposure to the antismoking advertisements with adolescent smoking behavior while controlling for a comprehensive range of covariates Table 6.

But as pointed out in the NCI review of the media and tobacco use, the studies by Sly and colleagues bcree recall at follow-up and the one by Siegel and Biener did not adjust for nonresponse at follow-up through weighting or analytic techniques. The variation in campaign exposure across different media markets in this study de provided natural comparison groups for examining the effects of campaigns and different intensities of exposure. line

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It is unclear whether the lack of success of these radio campaigns was due to the format, the messages typically broadcast on the radio stations, cify the lower population reached by radio. GRPs measure the relative reach and frequency of exposure to the campaign among the target audience within specific media markets. Use of a comparison group Murray et al. New studies published since these reviews further support these findings, indicating that well-funded state and national antismoking campaigns can reduce smoking among youth Davis et al.

Studies to assess differences in the responses of youth to various types of have usually used controlled exposures; less often, they have employed naturalistic exposures. Rather, analyses were conducted on individuals within these sampling units, which can increase the chance of a Type gork false-positive error due to an artificially inflated sample and failure to consider the effect on responses of shared experience within communities see Hornik [] and NCI [] for further discussion of these issues.

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Only Arizona in andFlorida inMinnesota inand Utah in — averaged more than four exposures per month to state antitobacco among to year-olds Szczypka et al. Exposure to one or more for the same period was associated with lower odds of being a smoker. Of the few reviewed experimental studies of different media strategies that had been conducted, only one had found a ificant reduction in smoking among adolescents Flynn et al. In a cross-sectional study, Seghers and Foland found that television were associated with greater recall than were other formats, and in a controlled-exposure study, Flynn and colleagues found that televised messages generally received higher ratings than did radio messages.

These population surveys linked self-reported exposure to and reductions in smoking initiation Siegel and Biener ; Sly et al.

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This suggests that in efforts to reduce youth smoking, there is a threshold of exposure below which yodk advertising may not have an influence, and effects increase with increasing exposure up to four per month CDC b. Preliminary indicate that the addition of these profile s was associated with an estimated increase of 20, unique visitors a week to the truth Web site in a comparison with traffic during typical campaigns that do not involve social networking sites Vallone The Ada review of the media and tobacco use described above highlights the difficulty of evaluating the media components of several early quasi-experimental studies of community-based cardiovascular programs because the media elements were ctiy with other program elements e.

In a recent controlled field trial Solomon et al. Theme, emotional cit, format, and characteristics of execution. In experimental studies youth may rate in terms of their emotional impact, liking, or other features thought to be associated with increased antismoking attitudes and behaviors, or are asked about these attitudes and behaviors directly. In controlled-exposure studies, youth typically view a series of messages and then either discuss their reactions to them often in focus groups or complete an experimental study.

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One review Schar et al. Controlled exposure and naturalistic exposure studies examining the relative effectiveness of different advertising messages for youth.

Assessments at the end of the 4-year intervention and then at a 2-year follow-up Flynn et al. Delivering a message through the Internet can encourage changes in smoking behavior through interactive communication; interactivity can range from quizzes, contests, and games to connecting to campaign Web sites and other fre through sites such as Facebook and MySpace. Subsequent reviews Farrelly et al.

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The findings from these and other cross-sectional, population-based evaluations of state and national anti-smoking campaigns persona, by tobacco control programs can be more fully understood by examining the reported findings from 20 relevant papers cited in the three most recent comprehensive reviews Richardson et al.

Cross-sectional population studies. Longitudinal population studies.