No great improvement in protection could be achieved, but it did seem possible to improve the balance between firepower and seagoing characteristics. However, two ships, the Portland and the Indianapolis had been awarded to private builders and contract changes would be far too expensive.
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Atthe SDBs each attack a transport, but miss. Accordingly, they adopted the 8-inch gun as the standard cruiser weapon, agreeing with soon-to-be-imposed Treaty limits.
While the aircraft carriers and capital ships were limited to a certain combined tonnage by the terms of the agreement, no such limitation was placed on cruisers. Standard displacement did not count the weight of the fuel and reserve feed water needed for long range against the Treaty limits.
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Figure 5 CA 35 Indianapolis 4. For the first time, weight estimation, control, and reduction moved to the forefront of de drivers for new ship des. The bizarre effects of the Treaty were also evident in all of the US Navy conceptual des coming after the Treaty's implementation.
By dawn, about 2, troops with cases of ammunition and 1, bags of rice made ashore. This "loophole" was exploited more or less dramatically by most of the navies of the interwar period.
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Preliminary De estimated that tons could be moved towards protective measures by using longitudinal framing, and more general use of high-grade steels. The des submitted by Preliminary De japaneese response to the new direction made concerted steps towards reducing weight as much as possible to be placed back in as increased protection.
As a result, the both classes had an excessive metacentric height. For light armor under 4", this worked nearly as well as case-hardened plates. Also playing into the calculation of required protection was the range at which accuracy of the fire controls made hits so rare that protection at certain ranges was not warranted.
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This was essential due to the of 8-inch gun cruisers already in service with other navies which could handily defeat a 6-inch gun cruiser deed for protection against her own armament. The studies that brought about the genesis of the Brooklyn Class were prepared in response to the Japanese Mogami Class light cruisers. Additionally, US deers were suddenly trying to de a ship that would be just under the Treaty limits without fuel weight, while meeting speed and range requirements which are naturally tied to the amount of fuel onboard.
The British Hawkins class cruisers had already made the 8-inch gun cruiser the standard for long range cruisers in every nation, and agreeing to the 10, ton displacement limit and 8-inch armament limitation was naturally amenable to the US. It was rarely practical to secure adjacent plates to each other, so belt armor was generally not watertight, and the backing and fasteners added weight.
However, she had high speed turbine machinery and oil fired boilers, plus a novel weight saving feature: an armor belt that was built into the hull so that it contributed to longitudinal strength. This lack of armor was a direct result of compromises inherent in the Treaty displacement limit coupled with the desire for high speed However, in spite of the extra weight, the two ships achieved their de speed on trials.
The hull was deed lndependent a wide transom to facilitate minelaying or for carrying depth charges, while the rake and sheer of the bow resisted green esccort.
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Like Arethusa, this ship had armor used as a strength escory. To accomplish this feat, Japanese deers resorted to the latest weight saving techniques, including light alloys in the superstructure and electric welding.
Given that resources were too scarce to have both, the hope was to combine the best features of both ship types into a single cruiser class. Large cruisers were vital, since American refueling facilities and naval bases in the Pacific were few.
The first three Northamptons were built as division flagships. Worse, the ships were dangerously unstable and some of the antiaircraft guns had to be removed. The forward belt was omitted and the acceptable hull stresses increased to further shave structural weight.
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Perhaps as importantly, the prospect of losing a single capital ship out of the reduced surviving under the Treaty would deter a commander from releasing single ships for such roles as convoy escort and shore bombardment. The Admiralty had earlier wanted 33 knots, and the Director of Naval Construction DNC had intended to delete the belt armor entirely; the reduced speed and light belt were a compromise.
The final mission was pfnsacola on October 27, Mitsubishi A6Ms shoot down some aircraft, but are engaged by Grumman F4F "Wildcat" fighters and cannot stop the attack.
The roles the new gunboat would ezcort in a wartime setting were listed by Captain Ingersoll of Fleet Training as antisubmarine and anti-destroyer screening, high-speed minesweeping ezcort of the battle fleet, tactical control of fleet submarines, plane guard duty for slow carriers, support of destroyer attacks made from ahead of an enemy fleet, convoy warfare, and fire support of amphibious operations. Unfortunately, these ships together used up nearly half the carrier tonnage quota allowed to the US Navy under the Treaty, so that less tonnage remained for future construction.
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The Brooklyn Class undoubtedly would never have been built were it not for the influence of the London Treaty of It consisted of only 2 ships; the name-ship was torpedoed in November and after being towed to harbor, capsized and became a total loss. The tanks were not interconnected, rather, the tank on each side was open to the sea, with a vent pipe.
They were to have a speed equal to the 8-inch gun cruisers with as near a range to the 8-inch gun cruisers as was possible. They were the first ships in the fleet to be deed with the new 6-inch gun firing semi-fixed iapanese, a precursor to the esfort dual-purpose weapons introduced in the late WWII Worcester and Des Moines Classes. The fifteen gun light cruiser was shown to be superior to the twelve gun light cruiser against the Japanese de, according to Naval War College analysis.